Collective Intelligence (definitions)

This is the list of definitions of Collective Intelligence, that I came across until now (hopefully to be augmented from time to time..):

  1. Collective intelligence is “to effectively use the information provided by others to improve one’s application”.
    Collective intelligence of users is the “a) intelligence that’s extracted out from the collective set of interactions and contributions made by your users; b) “the use of this intelligence to act as a filter for what’s valuable in your application for a user—This filter takes into account a user’s preferences and interactions to provide relevant information to the user”;
  2. Four basic conditions for the Collective Intelligence:
    1. they’re composed of individuals who have diverse opinions;
    2. when the individuals aren’t afraid to express their opinions;
    3. when there’s diversity in the crowd;
    4. and when there’s a way to aggregate all the information and use it in the decision-making process
  3. Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
    Source: Wikipedia
  4. “It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I’ll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.”
    Source: Pierre Levy,
  5. “Contemporary  science  sees  societies,  organisms  and brains  as  complex  adaptive  systems (Ball,  2012;  Holland,  1992;  J.  H.  Miller  &  Page,  2007).  This  means  that  they  consist  of  a  vast number of relatively autonomous agents (such as cells, neurons or individuals) that interact locally via a variety of channels. Together these channels  form a complex, dynamic network. Out of these non-linear interactions, some form of coherent, coordinated activity emerges—a phenomenon known as  self-organization (Camazine  et  al.,  2003;  Heylighen,  2013).  The  resulting  organization  is  truly distributed over the components of the system: it is not localized, centralized or directed by one or a few agents, but arises out of the interconnections between all the agents.”
    Source: Heylighen, Distributed intelligence technologies (unpublished)
  6. According to Heylighen, the difference between distributed intelligence and collective intelligence is that the later one inculdes only humans, while the former can encompass technological artefacts too.
    Source: Heylighen, Distributed intelligence technologies, page  (unpublished)
  7. Collective wisdom, also called group wisdom and co-intelligence, is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups. Collective intelligence, which is sometimes used synonymously with collective wisdom, is more of a shared decision process than collective wisdom. Unlike collective wisdom, collective intelligence it is not uniquely human, and has been associated with animal and plant life. Collective intelligence is basically consensus-driven decision making, whereas collective wisdom is not necessarily focused on the decision process. Collective wisdom is a more amorphous phenomenon which can be characterized by collective learning over time.
    Source: (